Based on a new model involving Quantum mechanics, the universe may have always existed and the prevailing theory of the beginning of the universe, which is explained by the Big Bang Theory, may have to be revisited. The new model may also explain the phenomenon of dark matter and dark energy in the universe, which the big bang theory cannot explain. Although the present theory of the beginning of the universe stems from the mathematics of the general theory of relativity, this does not explain what happened at or before the big bang, but just after it.

The Big Bang Theory

This is the most up to date theory about the formation of the universe from the precise time of the explosion to the subsequent evolution and expansion. The theory explains the way in which the universe expanded from a very dense and hot state to the universe we al know in the present. Detailed analysis set this moment at about 13.8 billion years ago. After the initial expansion,m the universe cool sufficiently to permit the formation of subatomic particles and then atoms. These particles eventually combined into huge clouds, forming the stars and galaxies.

New quantum model

This study is based on ideas developed in the 1950s by theoretical physicists David Bohm. During that time, Bohm did a work on classical geodesics-shortest`path, on a curved surface, between two points,, trying to replace them with quantum trajectories.

In the study, Al and Das tested these trajectories on an equation developed on those years. They discovered that the model did not predict neither the Big Bang not the Big Crunch.

Gravitons in the new model

Scientists say that their quantum model can be compared to the cosmological constant, only without the cosmic radiation or dark matter.terms.

In the new quantum model,the universe is permeated with quantum fluid composed of gravitons- the particles that drive gravity. If real, these particle are believed to play a key role on quantum gravity. Moreover; gravitons can form a Bose-Einstein condensate at temperatures that existed at the start of the universe.

This model is expected to be analyzed in the future to get a deeper introspection into the topic of the formation, evolution and final destination of the universe.