Dyslexia is manifested by changes in phonological processing (letter-sound correspondence) and other neurolinguistic areas that cause a significant change in reading and writing, and may also reflect on the mathematics, particularly in problem solving.
Warning signs for parents and teachers
- The large warning signs in cases of dyslexia are very low reading speed (usually the child does not even understand what he just read) and a lot of typing errors, usually very serious and over a long period of time. However, there are small signs that we must be alert to. Children with dyslexia may have problems with:
- Short-term memory (whether visual, auditory or both), difficulty remembering tables, alphabet, formular, etc.
- Automation (when the child doesn't have that click on their brain that allows to read the words automatically, taking a long time to decipher each letter, this task becomes very tiring and discouraging for the child)
- Sensorimotor coordination (fine motor, lateralisation)
- Visual or auditory perception, orientation and / or organization of space / time
- Attention and / or concentration
- Oral expression and / or emotional or behavioural problems.
- These children tend to have problems in the English subject (reading, writing, spelling, interpretation and / or operation of language) or in foreign languages, much due to phonological difficulties they present. They may also have personal organisation problems, independent study, in written work, etc, Still occasionally confuses 'b' and 'd' and words such as 'no/on'.
- Another consequence of dyslexia are problems of attention or behaviour as the child ceases to be motivated for their learning and opts for avoidance strategies.
Myths and Realities
"Dyslexia is a modern disease"; "Replacing letters, sure that is dyslexia"; "It has dyslexia because it sometimes writes well the same word." These are some ideas that are often generalised to the dyslexic population. However they are not reality.
There has always been dyslexia. Formerly were often labeled as children who wore not smart enough for school. However, it is necessary to understand whether there is any case of dyslexia or learning difficulties in the family as this is a good predictor.
There is no specific error able to diagnose dyslexia. It is normal to sometimes write the same word correctly and others incorrectly. Often, children have a wide range of errors and it is this quantity and quality of errors that should be evaluated over time to be possible a diagnosis.
Thus, dyslexia does not depend on socioeconomic status, gender, intelligence or level of parental education. It is rather a difference in how the brain processes information and is influenced by heredity.
An estimated 5% to 10% of the population has dyslexia. If you have questions about your child, contact an educational psychologist.